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ac pe. yxaepc ye ay


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4.3.

 

Ba po yo cce o coa oco cyoa exa, oocpecy ooe o ooy y-poa ocpao a, e oco ceo aaec ey aa (a ae p yac poepo pyx acox cyo).

Ba po poo cce o coa ooe e oo ey eo cyea (.e. ocoo ey aa), o ey a ea.

aa xapaepa epa aoo pa aaec o, o a e eee e pooco py pyy oo e ace o oppecoec cea. Ba po pecae coo peo eaoc po, ocoy xoe oepa a x pax eocpeceo oppyec ypc a, oepa pooc p oo pax cpec c oya. Po aoo pa ooe opeeec eo y:

          ocyae eyapooo oopoa oapo, ycy aao;

          oppoae aoo ypca o e cpoca peoe;

          exa a o ax pco poe ceyx aao;

          cpye ocyapca ee eeo-peo ooeco .

Paac poe, peoae, aoae (ece) ae p acoc o oea, xapaepa ax oepa oeca coyex a.

poe ae p cocpeooe pox acox epax. Cpe x ec ae p ooe, H-ope, paype-a-ae, ape, pxe, Too, Caype p. Ha pox a-x pax a poo oepa c aa, oope poo coyc poo aeo oopoe, o e coepa ce c aa peoaoo ecoo ae eaco o x cayca aeoc.

Ha peoax ecx ax pax ocyecc oepa c opeee oeppye aa. Kopoa a, coyea ax oepa opeeeo peoe, ooceo peypo ocyecec aa aoo peoa, a a ecoo ae aa, oopx a aa ec aoao ao peec ceax c eco eypo.

Kopoa ocpax a aoay coyec aa peyeceo oepax c opoo-poeo eypo, epecyec cooc opex ocpax a o ooe aoao, oopo pae x pecypc. B oepax a eaoco ao pe opoa pooc peyeceo o ooe oapy CA, ocoy o ec oepa eyapo ae peep cpeco, peoaae a pa epoa. o-oy ec ao-o a apoc y aa o paype-a-ae ypc eapcoo paa, o ey cooa ypc oapa pay eap o eoy po opo. oa ac ceo o ye-poae a (oo oapa CA) coepae epe oap a poeyoy ay, a a o cea c oapo CA a oo e oooc coepa oee pye oepa c c eo ae cooae eyapoo oopoe opa x opcea.

Ocoe yac pox ceo a ao pe o pye oepece a, o ox cyax oe y epo .

B ae cpae ae oepa oy ocyecc oo yoooe aa, .e, oepec aa, oy e epaoo aa Poccco eepa a poeee oepa ocpao ae, a a c yace ocpaoo aaa a, aa oopx ooc pae ocpa yaca.

a aa oa a ae oaae e a e coc, a ypc, aoao eeo e oec oaae e oo eoc eeo-peo o, o coc aoao oo eo cpae c ooa pyx cpa.

p paccope poe peypoa ax ooe epy oepe ceye e apaee ao cep a aoay ooy. Heocpeceoe oece ao cep a aoaoe xoco ocyecec a opao epe exa oppoa yopoa ax ypco.

Koea aoo ypca epy oepe oecy a ec oe opa copa. Cee ypca aoao a p pox pax ycox ee pocy ypex e a ope oap, o ae cee opa a ce epee cpoca a oeecey poy, ce ex e a coppyey poy, cece oopoo ec poc copa. oee ypca aoao a, a pao, ee opa poecca.

He eee a, e eee eco oee copa opa, ec eee coocx coooe oea poo opoe e ee oeca aeca aoax aopo (epepacpeeee poecc a ypoe pooo xoca eo). ooe ee opaae oaae yco opo ooee copx opx e ao cpa. Ta, eee ypca a a 1% ee ee opx e a 0,8% copx a 0,1-0,6% acoc o cpa. Ta opao, p pox pax ycox, cee ypca aoao a yxyae yco opo, a eo oee yyae.

B cooyoc yaae a aopa opee e aoo ypca a opo aac cpa.

Kpoe eocpeceoo oec a copo-ope oepa epecayee oea aoo ypca oy oaa eaopoe e a aoay ooy epe pye aa:

          aee ypca aoao a oe cy o aopo pa cpae;

          aeo ocoec eyee epceoe apoae eeooecx oepa (peo opaca pc eyapoo opoe ecx);

          oaec epooc ecapyx ec ceyo, o oe pec ae ooec epa (pcy eeo-peo cce, oo eopeeeoc a pe, coy pee oxooc ceyx oepa a cpee opo p ooe).

Tay ceyo ycox ecaoc ao o oo oaa a pepe yopoa pocccoo aoo pa 1994 aae 1995 . B ex cyax, oa oco poo aoo pa oa cpoe oee aoo ypca py (ayc-op 1994 ., ap 1995 .), aaec accoa poaa pye oe a oap pacee a oyee cepxp o poca aoo ypca. ooe acpoe pyx oepaopo aoo pa epeac eeopo opaa acee, oope ycox oe a cpec ycop oepa oeceaxc pye oc-pay ay. ooe oocopoe oa yaco aoo pa ey aeo oey oecee aoo ypca py o cpae c ooo eaae py o oece oo ooecx aopo (e, peo cce cao poeoo pooca).

ooa cya coac a poccco ao pe oe apa ae 1995 ., o oa yaco pa ye apae pooooy copoy. ae oa ocoa a opa o x eax poca eeo a 1 apae 1995 ., a ae a peooe o paoo x eax poca aoo ypca py e epo. Oocpo pa yaco aoo pa, apaea a oyee p o peaa ypca py, pea aeo oee coy ypee o py o ooe oapy CA, e o o oocoao oe ooeco cyae yx cpa.

Copeee ooece eop ye ooe ae pa eoa oec ( oce oax yco yopoa aoax oo) a a ypc epa e-e ax ooe.

oo o ye oe oooc peypoa aoo pa Pocc, opoye pao ocaoc a ocox copeex oex oec a a ypc.

Kecaca eop coe acceco e paccapaa a ypc a epa ee ooeco ccee. epa a oe oepa cpoae ape a po ex epoo, o e oyc eaoo a eyapoy opo ceyx, cyax peex cpoop e aaa.

oeapcca oa cyaa a o oa o eaeca ocyapca cepy ax ypco. o e oeapco, exa aoo ypca cocoe ca aaec oece paoece o-o, ooe cooae poocex pecypco, aoc yco poc aooo aoaoo poya.

paa oaaa, o ecaca, oeapcca eop co e e ya oe ocoeoc yopoa peaoo aoo pa. oco copeex ooecx eop pe-aa cooa aa, o peypye a ypc a o ocox cpyeo ocyapceoo oec a ooy.

acyae a eop oye ca aoo ypca. Oa pecae coo ccey epoecoo ee cpoaoo ypca a eoy ey cooec c ooee a cpa a . Kypc oe pa ao-y oo epo ae, pye a paceoy oaae, opaaey cpee oea ax ypco a pe.

Teop oax ax o ocea paoe pepe opeee, a pao, a ocoe apea oyaeo c a aaeoo peaoo eoo aoo ypca. aa oe- eae oy ya oppepoy aoo ypca acoc o ee e cpae, ypo oooax peepo.

Baa oa aoo ocyapca peoaae e oo e, o opee eo . Coeae ex x eoo ac epy oepe o oeo coco aoao oo, popeo apoooeco oe ocyapca, oooce paeca peypoa opopoa pae ooece .

Ocoeoc yopoa pocccoo aoo pa e oo pe ay-o aax eop, poe, a op o oac aoo peypoa, aoe ooec pa cpaa. Tpeyec paoa ox oxoo peypoa ax ooe c yeo eyapooo oa.

Pae pocccoo aoo pa 1990-1995 . ceao ay oy o ocox cpyeo eeo-peo o eo.

C oceeo epae poccco oo poy ooecy ccey ocpo ca opoc a aoo ypca py a ypee ooece poecc. poa paa ae oec pax aao oec ao cep a aoae oo epe exa aoo ypca.

B epy oepe cee aoo ypca py ceye paccapa a o cyecex aopo, x a e . Ta, a pc cep-op 1994 . a c oo ooy y oo cpa. Ec ayce 1994 . e coca ooo 4,4%, o ye ope o poc o 15,1%, a ap 1995 . oc ypo 17,8%. Heocpeceoe e a ycee - ox poecco oaaa aea eea cc ea aa oce 1994 ., aa cpyyp poea poccco oo. Heay po pacpya oo cpa cpao cpoe aee aoo ypca py.

oo e ecoo cocoo oec ce aoc ypca py a e .

Bo-epx, peyae ce ypca py pocxo poc cpeeo ypo e cee, oopo ope oap ooe xo oy oapy accy. oee pe pooo oapooopoa Pocc oeceaec a ce peaa opx apo, pe a ce pe yeaec. B pyex opoax Pocc (oce Ca-eepype) o opx oapo poo oapooopoe ae e. B peyae ce ypca py cooeceo pacy e ce oppyee oap. Heyo poc e a oap epo eoxooc ec a aopo, cypy oe oa acee.

Bo-opx, poc e a ope oap cococye epee cpoca a ypee oap. B ycox opaeoc poocex pecypco o ox opacx poeoc oooe yeee cpoca e ae aeaoo ooeoo peoe oapo. B oe epeee cpoca a ype poy ee ooeoy ae a e (ocoeo paocpoo ae).

B-pex, cee aoo ypca py eae oee o copx opace poaa co poy a pae, e a ypee pe o pe ea. Cooeceo cee peoe poy ax opace a ype po p eeo cpoce ae poc pyex e o ce oeaype copo poy. B Pocc oco cop opac c cpee opac, o-oy poc ypca oapa ee pocy pyex e cpex opacx cooeceo pacy e ep pyx opacx.

B-eepx, oe oa acee pooee c ooe cyo poca e. eee aoo ypca py oe xocee cye paccapa a coeopa aop coco oo cooec c ea eo poca ooppy coe oeee a pe. Ta, oa aeeo poca aoo ypca py aceee oe acao ycop o pee eoxoe oy, oac ye co oape aac. pooe ae yy cpec aaopeeo epeec ooe oep o oecee py ey coe . B cyae ao a aaec accooe eco o pye oap ocpay ay.

oap ac coyec aece pep oe oxooc oepa, o aao opepye pooee a ye oox ee aoo ypca py. Bce yaae aop oe co e-opay poccc ee po, aeo ca eo ypaeoc.

Haoe, ecaoc aoo ypca py ee pocy oee o pooceo eeoc a acx ( cey), a ocyapcex ( a ypca py) x ao, o ec ooe o .

Be a aoo ypca py a ypee oe poecc ec e ece ea aopo eyooo ce ypca aoao a. Ta, poc e cpex opacx, op-epoax a poe e, oeeo ecye a oeecex opeee aaoo copo . oe opac xoca e epa oype c apye oapopooe ye cepa pepaa pooco. Te e eee yeee apoc oo, oee aoex o, oeo cee copaee opa c oopee eee a aaeoo c-poaoo ypca py oe ec ee oee e ocec. ooe ep pey ae oype a ox oapx pax, o ec ce aeca poy poce e.

B poo pae oeae ax ypco oaae aeoe oece a aoae oo epe ee apae e aao. C yeo cooo oecoo ooecoo pca oepa a poccco eeo pe, ee apoc pyeo eeo cce cooo ypo ee aoeoc ee aoo ypca py oe cao a po eyapox aao (ooo, epo peoo ae ypca py pocxo peapa ac ao py pocccx copepo oye ooeo p o oepa a ypee ao pe).

B o e pe oo e aey o ypex aao a pyx, a oapax, opa paec e yacye aeo oopoe, o ao coyec oye cepxpe o cey oepa, epeeac ey a po, pa KO eaocx peo ee cee oo po.

Hapaee e ax aao oe co ac o eo ae ypca py, eeo-peo o epaoo aa o pooo pa ooeco cya cpae.

B oe ceye oe, o ocaoe e a aoo ypca a ooy Pocc epeeeo c ece oeca pyx aopo, ac oopx oeo cee opeee y ay

B cooec c o aaa eeo-peo o ocoeoc poccco ao cce oco e ao o Pocc ocac ypeee ao-acooo ooe oc-caoee aeecocooc Pocc, ocyecee ep, apaex po yxoa aao Pocc, pooece oapa oo, ypeee o py a o ypee, a eyapoo ae.

oa aa Pocc a ypee ao pe ocyecec oece po eeo-peoo peypoa, peayex ao .

Ba po Pocc ocaec o aoee ax ceopo paaeoc pooo xoca Pocc.

Haao pa pocccoo aoo pa ceye ca 1993 ., oa aepc poecc coa aoao a oee eeo cce Pocc o eex cce ocyapc eo CCCP.

Poccc a po ee po pae ype xapaep, o cao epy oepe c ayoc aoao eeo cce o aco apeo a o epecy eeo e Poccco eepa a aoee pa. apoc poccco eeo cce aeo cee ocec caoc aoao oo.

Hecop a ypoe pae pocccoo aoo pa ocee o, oe eo ocoeoc c cece apoc coeco oo o ocaoo pa:

          eppopoaa o aoo ceea oe acoo pe cpa, oapa oo;

          aeoe oece a cocoe ao cep yopoae ee cpyeap eooecx aopo, pee ceo oecoo xapaepa;

          caa aoc ey a po ae aaco cpa (o cao o ce c e, o a a po ocyae opaea o ax oxoo o copa cpa);

          pe cpa eyapox ooecx ooex eoepe ocpax ecopo;

          ooa xapaep aoo pa ( ao oopoe a pe peapye oa aa oap CA);

          peoae pa yco yopoa ecx ax p cooeceo pa ypox ypca py a ao ax p (aa epea oycoea ceo ooeco, -acoo eeo-peo cya peoax, a ae pao cee oepa ax pecypco oepecx aax oo oo peoa). Ba po Pocc axoc ce ee ca coeo caoe, a exa eo caopa oo oppyec. Ba po oaac ooceo caee ca c eeooeco eeoc, e cpaax c pao poo ooo. o ao epy oepe oo po oapa aece cpeca cepee poccco eeo ccee.

Oopeeo p apoooecx aopo e ooe pec cooece eoe cce Pocc ocaoo pa, o ae a ypc py pepeeaoc c pe apea oyaeo cocooc py pyx a. K yaa aopa oocc:

          coe ecooece opaceo cpyyp pocccoo opa copa;

          oe o cooc ocox aopo pooca Pocc o cpae c po ypoe;

          coe cope ope o, a ae opae a cop op pa oapo;

          ayoc aoao eeo cce;

          coa cee ooopoaoc oex, epy oepe copx, opace poccco oo.

oaa oe oee ep pocccoo aoo pa, oope o oo ea ocoeoce aoao eeo cce oo Pocc eo, aee ceye ocaoc a yopoa ocox ceeo pocccoo ypeeo aoo pa -peoo eaocoo poce x aoc c py oco eea eeo cce Pocc.

Ka oeaoc e, xapaep oepa a poccco ao pe oe cao ca c eeooeco eeoc ae aaco cpa. oaee oco ax oepa apaeo a ooe paeee cpec ocpao ae oa aeeo ae ypca py cey, cay c oeae oxooc pax ceopax pocccoo eeoo pa. Ocoa acca coox eex aao, paa a pyey, a oapoy opy, pypye ey pe aoee ae cepa oe eex cpec po eaocx peo, po o-cyapcex paocpox oa a po, oop ae ae ecoo ceeo.

Oaeoe cee oeo oepa a ao pe pecaec oe opa aooep. Bo-epx, a po ec ype (po peeo). Bo-opx, ycox acoo caa o cyae ec po, ocya opeoc eeooeco eeoc, a ae poecc, cae c eoapae poccco .

oee oaee epce pa aoo pa ca c pacpee oeppyeoc pocccoo py, pacpocpaee pea oeppyeoc a . Oao epce o oo oycoe pae caae ceo eeoo pa Pocc.

Ec oop o epceax pa po B, o ee eeoc ae ye apaea a oeceee ecyeo aoo pa a eo poo cpyyp a peaa cpaeecx ee, opeeex ocyapco.

KEBE COBA

       po ex ya

          oap po 

          a po

          pa

          yac pa

KOHTPOHE BOPOC

 1. ae opeeee py ex ya.

2. epece oce y pa ex ya.

3. ae xapaepcy cpyyp pa ex ya eo yaca.

4. B e coco ocoe ee pa pa ex ya?

5. ae opeeee oapoy py.

6. epece cocae ee oapoo pa.

7. Kaoa cpyypa oapoo pa?

8. ae opeeee aoy py

9. Kao y aoo pa?

10. Ka opao a po e a ooy cpa?

11 . epece ocoe ep, xapaepye poccc a po.

 

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