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ac pe. yxaepc ye ay


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5.2. HAEHTAH AHA B PEBO TOPOBE

 

ac peo opo paccae oy aca oxo pa ceo ooopa opyex ao cpyeo e, oope c aoee e c o pe ecox peoe. Ho a poaapoa ce ooopae exc aacy eoao oax p, po oceo x a ycaoee pex ypco?

Oe a o oe pye opoc oo oy, coy e, pe aaa, ope paoaa eop paa oooo pa.

oo oee ecoo peaeoc ao oo oo. Bo-epx, c o pe x poo oyp, ccey ay ypco , ceoaeo, aapy o cooc pex ao. Bo-opx, ya acoo-ooecoe ooee ea, opac, oopo pae a, .., a ocoe oo ec ype, a aaea peaa, cooc aa. Bo aao c ocoo ae ceo.

B cooec c oo oxoa cpec coc a apae aae pa. Copo epoo apae coa oy execoo aaa, a oceoae opoo oy yaeaoo aaa.

yaea aa ocoaec a oee poo cya eo coco epex oo

Ta opao, oepoae e peoaae oocee eca pyoee cceoa oo, o opee, aea aea poa cooc peoo aa o cpae c peao cooc ao, yy p .. C oo yaeaoo aaa eaec poo oxoa, opeeeo yyy cooc aa , ceoaeo, oop oe o a ey. Ha ocoe oo eac peoea o eecoopaoc oyo poa.

B o coco eo opeoe oe o execoo aaa, peoaaeo, o ce eccee yaeae p cypyc opaac pox eax. Ocooe ooee, a oopo cpoc exec aa, aaec o, o e pex ypco ye opaea c opa, oopa ocec yyec oeax p caoc oeo yaeaoo aaa. Ocoe oe execoo aaa cpoc peoee a a, aa oeo oepa o x ye-poae, aa ypco.

oee oo, copo execoo aaa co opa e poca oxooc oa pca pepaeca a cooc aa. eceo, ae pex oea e a a, aaee a oeeceo ooo pe, oaa, co e ae pap ey peoaae oxoo peao poo eo.

oxooc aa, oopa a opeeea yaea aaa, eoxoo oe epe exa pa. Ta oo a o oece cpoca peoe ycaaaec ea e ao opeo cya oe opaea oea oe eaoo xoa a ocoe yaeaoo aaa. Ho oo oe e poo.

ea a peo pe peapye a pae cyx, oece e, paoae ppaoae pecae coe oyaee poao. Ho oa opaec a yaeay oey aa eo po opaae opeoc oyae ao ae eo aoo aeca. Ta opao, ey exec yaea aao e aco ce. aec oe aa peoo pa coy cpyeap execoo, yaeaoo aaa. Oao pe execoo aaa coyc ae, oo caa, o o poo pacpocpaea paa a peo pe. pepe oo eoa a xapaepy eo peyeca:

1) execa eoc;

2) cpoa aaa;

3) pooc ooo ca opyex a pe ao, e p ocyece yaeaoo aaa.

Te e eee oepaop pa, coye exec aa, e oy pee ocaoo oo e peoo pa a ey epcey. ooy aeceoo aaa eoxo oaop oxo, peoaa cooae ae ax yaeaoo aaa.

eycoo, oa ae aoy oepaopy peoo pa coo. oo c yepeoc caa, o paec aoy poeccoay, paoaey a pe, ocye cpyeap execoo aaa, o e aoy yaea.

oyc, aa, ocyec yaea aa, ce, aea aea poa cooc aoo aa o cpae c x ypee eceo cooc. e oo aaa - eooeee po a. Ha ocoa oo pac ecoe pee y, poa epa ae a.

Oao ec po eooe a ceac, o oe ooo, o o e ceae o yye, peyae ep (apa a aa) e oyc, .e. e ax apa, o po oep yaeae oe aao.

Kpoe oo, yaea aa o ea, pyoea paoa, peya coa a ax, aeaoo acpoa.

pe oxo o pex oepa aoo oeoo oepaopa oe oaac eocao acpoa apa o poooy yaeaoy aay. B cpaax c pao poo ooo poo coyec eoa peoo oe opopa pax opacx oo, ocyecea ceaca paax p, oa, aeca, po .. Peya yaeaoo aaa coc poyo oapo pa ope eee, oeo ., poac yaca peoo opa.

Caoee o execoo yaeaoo aaa aaec ceac . Oco pece pa execoo aaa ec ocyce eoo pa, a yaeaoo -eocaoa aa cceoa eocoepoc pa oaaee. Cop opa o pep-ee, a pao, cope c po pyoce.

yaea aa ocoaec a cceoa eoo pa apoooecx oaaee, yxaepco oeoc ea. o-ao xapaepy ocoe apae yaeaoo aaa, oo e:

1 . Oeooec, apoooec, aa. ooee oo oeaec c ye ceyx aopo

oea eooo a, BH, aoc, , poex cao, aoo ypca .. aec caa oeapcca oa paeca, e apo a oo po. Ta opao, opeeec coao-oec ooec a ec .

2. ycpa aa peoaae yee aooaeoo peypoa eeoc opac, eooo a ao opac, ee cpyyp, oypeococooc, ypo epe, pyox ooe, eoc pooceoo a, a ae ocyecee acca opace o ooe ypo eoo aoc o ca pa. B peyae ocyecec aece poo pa opac.

3. Aa opeoo ea (p, opopa). Oea ea ae ceye o:

aa acooo ooe oa (pep) oea aeecocooc oe oc oea acoo ycooc opeeee e p, ee oxoo, ooe a pe oc-oo epe oaae oea poa, ao acco oa. o o aaa peoaae pace op p a coce aa pye oaae, xapaepye eoc eeoc oa;

aa coco epce pa eeea, opaaoe oepece yco pao yaec paa ypae oae, coca ypax opao (Coea peopo) ..

4. yee ecox coc ex ya x acox ao a ocoe oax oaaee oxoa a a, oea eo oa ..

yaea aa peoaae, o-epx, cpyypa opaox ooo, o-opx, opaoy oyex aepao pace eoxox oaaee, oeo, aopo a ocoe o-o oea poopoae ypee cooc a. Ta opao, yaea aa ee ocoo ocae xapaep coaco epee aa e ooee ooe eo. apoooec aa poo ooe o cceoae pa, yeo o aoa cpoca . ea a ooo pe ac pee ceo o cooyoc aao, ecpyex pee a (cpoc) o oea peaaex poa pex ao (peoee), .e. x coooee opeee oypy peoo pa.

B ca coo oyp aaec ppoc eeo acc, apaeo ecpoa a pe, o peye oe ypco ypaoea . Be cpoc ooe peoy py yopoa ycoo, ypc eo oac epx.

B ca o oyp, oa oe ao, peaaex poa, peae aeecoco cpoc, aaec oo aaa c p, a a ae pex ao oy x peaoa oo p aex oepx ee. B peyae ypc oac, ao peo po aaec e.

Ta opao, oypa peoo pa axoc o e cpoca poa aaa a pe yxoa c ee. yaea apo-ooec aa yae e apo a o poecc. Ocoo co aaa aoo aoa poy (BH). aco po eo e coae, a epepacpeee a ocoe cooa exaa ooo p. ooy, e e poee aoo ao-a poy, e a o oe ec oo pacca a peo pe.

Oao oe ooo, o cpeca e ocy a peo po. oey?

Bo-epx, o oy cooa a opeee. Ocoy ac ec a peo po ocae aceee, ec oo ee oxo, peae pacxo a opeee. eee aoc, poc apaoo a, cee aoo, cococye poy aaa a . Oao co ypoe oe pec oy, o paec ce cpeca acee yy cooa a opeee. Aa, aaec yaea cceoa a apoypoe, oea, o ea ccea coaoo oecee, p oopo pacxo, paee opaee opaoae peepo, oeceac coa aa, cae po aaa a peo po.

Bo-opx, ecop oy oa peoee o pe aa, o py a cooa cox . Koype cyecye e oo ey pea ecpoae aco oe, o yp ceopo acooo pa, apep oee cpec ay a a a popee pex ao. ooy yaea aa yae ee poex cao. ay aoo ypca coocae c aopa peoo pa.

B-pex, oxo oy ecpoa a ae. B c c peeo apoooeco ac yaeaoo aaa caoc coao-oec ooec a cpae, caa oeapcca oa ee paeca, e apoaopo a peo po.

Ha opo ae ycaoe popeo ecpoa cpec ae ooe aee ee ycpa aa. e a oco a ec ece cooec c ocoo poo ee-e (c peo poo ). Ho p o eye ya, o p ae e aoee co aae ypc ex ao, oope e o coo cay ocoy.

Aaoo pae epo popeoe pae oya aa-o opac pya opace, ea ooooe ooee a pe (apep, pya oax opace) cepee oa, oeceae ope ooo ceopa poa. B poopoa opacee ooe o pea poo oyp ooe ycpa aa. a ac yaeaoo aaa ae oooc accpoa opac o ooe ypo eoo aoc o ca pa.

Haoee a ec a yaeaoo aaa aa opeoo pep (p, opopa), oop peoaae yee eeoc p, oey ee acooo coco ooe a pe ooe oe cpoopoa:

eyee epceoe cocoe pep;

epoe e pa pep;

oooc oa ocyx coo cpec;

ooee pep a peo pe.

oco apyex aao oaae, o aoee cyece ec oyee opa o cey opoca:

1. e aaec oa?

2. Kao oxo a a oa?

3. Kao e aae oa?

4. Kaoa eya poa ea a ee a a oa cpae c aca epx ypo pooo a? Ka cooocc peo ypc c paceo cooc cxo cooc ao oa oxooc x cooa?

5. Kao peep oa?

6. Ka aco yy po oa?

7. Ko ypae oae, acoo eo oepe ee pyoocy (aeco eeea)?

Aa x opoco e cepe epeco o yaeaoo aaa, o oeece aaa e cea ocaoo opa oea a ae opoc.

Kacac aa yaeaoo aaa, aaa oopoo poaapoa ecoe aeca acox ao cpoopoa ey a x, ceye paccope epe ocox eea oe: oe peepo, acoe oepa, cpyypa pa aoo aa , aoe, eo oxooc, oopa ec c ye cex eepecex aopo ao opeee e.

Oe peepo oa cy apae caoc ex a ooe aoepoy oecy ocyec yeee aaa a ce pcoee peepo. Kpoe oo, peep oa -y cooc ao. Ta opao, yeee peepo e a peo ypc oo oo aa ooy yaec yaea aaa p oepoa e .

acoe oepa, pooe aoep oeco, o e oaa e a ypc ao, oao poe oa ecopo po y, o peo ypc eo ya pxo ee. Ta, apep, ec aoepoe oeco yeae co aa a ce peepo, o ecop ocpa o a pa poea oa pacpe pa ee ao. Aaoo ocp-aec yeee aaa a ce ooe pyoo aoepoo oeca. B acoc, oee ypca a oe oceoa a yco . ecop ca, o eoe cooae aex cpec, peex oao ao, oc oxooc aoepoo oeca oa ecopo opaac poce ypca.

Ba eeo oepoa e ec cpyypa peoo pa ao eo ya.

po, e eeeo coepac ce c eo oeco ex ya, yo peapye a eaeoe x oeco. ea a ao pe ypaea. Co coep ceo ecoo ceo, o oc eaeoo oe oe ypca.

po po, apo, e e ae pye ce, a a ooe oepa ocyecc eeeo.

aoe, opeee ypee cooc ao cceyec a ee oxooc pex ao, x cocooc poc p o ecpyex ee eex cpec.

Hapep, aaa oxooc a coyec ccea oaaee. B c c e o oxo epaee ooex a coco e oo eo, o ppoca ypcoo cooc, o aepecoa aae oxoa pacee a a.

a oaae ooec oeo eo oa, xapaepy coooee ey eo ea eo .

coy a oe a cacec aop, oo cooca cee oxooc a pax opopa, a ae pax oox cpyeo apae ecpoa.

Koe aaeoc ooe oe, ay o co oxoe opopa coca aaee e.

Ec o poc pepoa a paep ea e coaae, o ey ea, coy cee opy, opee a cpeeeey ey (acoe oee) cy poe-e oeca cooecyx o a a ey eo o oey oecy a, axoxc opae. oya a, aee popeae e oo ceo oxo, o yye e. ooy p cao, ocoo aaeo ee, op ee ee poca, ypc a opacae.

e opeee e a a ocoe ea ec ac cyae oe a a pooo o e yyx oxoo oa, coppepoao a cee pca, oop caec ecopo c peaae poopyex oxoo. B ax cyax aa oeae oo oxoa, a e peae eaepae a, cooae oopx oeceae eo oyee. o eo poo coyec pae yaeaoo aaa, o eo e eo pe.

eoo oe aaa oxoo peycapac a aa:

ep oea yyx oxoo opo op op aaa cooa oee.

Oo aa ocoae oey yyx oxoo oa a ee cpex oxoax a ocee ecoo e c yeo oppepo, cax c eo oa aex epce oa a ae oee e. Beco o pecaa oxo a a o oo yyeo epoa, aa poco pae cpe ey oxoo a o epo poopye ay ee. Koppepo paee coec cpyyp oxoo oy ca c oae ee aoao ooe, oe ox poyo, oea ce oa, opaee oe a ocox oeppyex ex ya c py aopa, e poecce apoooecoo ycpaoo aaa.

Hopa aaa ec opa oeo e oxoa, paeo poeax. Oa opaae opy, o opo a pe aapyec cooc eyx . Hapep, yoee cpee e oxoo a opy aaa 10% ( 10 pa) paoao pacey copoao cooc o ooy pax oox oxoo a e epo, yeeoy a 10%. Tae opa aaa 20% aea oey e oxoa, paoy 5 ea, oop, yy yoe a cpee poopyee oxo, ac cooc, yc copoao cooc aoo e ooa oxoo, yeeoo a 20%. co, o oo oxoo eoco o pee. Oao -a coo cee eyepeoc ce, ey pa ecee oxo o opeo oy, aay yoee ypoc poey, coy pace cpex poopyex oxoo.

B oce cyae, e oe aa yepe, o poopyee oxo yy peaoa, e e opa aaa, peea oxoa. Hapep, cyae c eco c oe ca oxoa copec epcee aa oe cooa opy aaa 7%. Ec poopyee oxo coca 5 o. a a, aa opa peoaae poy coc ooo 70 o. (5 o.: 0,07 =71,43 o.). Tae aa, oea ec c coo cee pca, oe cooa ocepa poo oxoo, coy opy aaa. B cyae c oa c o oea poco oa ey oxoa peec oe a opa aaa. B x cyax yaaa opa oe ocy 1%.

Bop cooecye op aaa oe cyee. Oa ec pooo o paccaoo pca, caoo c peaae poopyeoo ooa oxoo eae ecopa a ce o pc. Hapep, a ocoe poopyex oxoo aa oe p opy 15% aaa. Oao ecop oe pe, o oa co a, ocoy, ec oa e yacc oc poopyex oxo-o, e oep a yoa oy ac cepee ecopa. ooy ecop oe opeoa ycao opy aaa 30% o aaa ocyece oe. O yaaee p p-eex op aaa ec opeeeoe po coooee p/e opex opace oa c xapaepca, pe oeaeo oa.

Opeeea oa caa c po aaex eo oee aeoc a oa. e aaa oxoo peoaae, o 1 o, oxoo oaoo ee ecopa eaco o oo, ye o ae aece ea ocae peecpoa oa. Hapo, eoope ecop yepa, oea aeoc opaae oae oo eex cpec, e ocya coceoc, .e. ae o ea. Tao oxo opeee cooc copee peoaae aaa poopyeoo ooa a o ea, e oxoo, oeo oe o, a ope ecop ye ace o acox opeoce ecopa eo pecypco, a ae o epce oxoo oa ooceo oeao op p o ea ecopa.

K cpyeap yaeaoo aaa oocc pee eo oeo. p o, oao, e e oe, o aa oeo ee eo oo c oece a. ooy cooae oo oeo e poee cex ao yaeaoo aaa oe pec oye eocoepo opa.

Haoee aco coyc ceye oe:

1) oe p/e = atio opeeec a ooee ypcoo cooc a ee co p pacee a oy ooey a;

2) oe d/p = atio opeeec a ooee ea o ooeo a ee ypcoo cooc;

3) ea-oe opeee e oe cya a pe eo a cyy opeo eo ya. Ec ea-oe ooee, o eoc ao eo ya aaoa eoc pa. eoc ao eo ya ye cac p opaca eoc pa.

ea-oe ae po ca epo pca ec ae ee ya. p ea oe e pc ec e, e cpee o py, a p ea, ee e, aoopo;

4) -apa (-sqaed). O xapaepye o pca aa ay ey yay. e e -apa y, e oee eac ec oeee a o ooe oe ee pa.

Peya aaa acox oeo e ecoeoe aee p cpae co caapa, op oopx cea apyee. Cpaee oo poo c aao oaae aax oa oea pyx eo ao ceope pa.

Bcooe coooee p/e-atio oe yaa, apep, a o, o ecop, oyae ay yay, oa poca p oa. Bece c e oe ooo, o oea poca ypcoo cooc ao eo ya cepa ooy oe aac aee e.

Kaccec pea aaa p/e-atio c:

1) cpaee ceoeo coooe p/e (aoo oea) co cpe ypoe pooo epoa, cocaeo o 5 o 10 e. p o eoxoo ya , a ceoaeo, e opoco -ec opoc o o, oecpy yye oxo ee a poc pooo poea, oycoe o poecca? o, ececeo, ac o oooc poa pooo po-y o oee co ea poca peaeoc poop, oepae cooecye ea ;

2) cpaee ceoeo p/e-ado c p/e-atio a, aaox o oco yco oe peaeoc, oooc peecpoa, eepcpoa cyaao xapaepca acooy pcy.

epexp po o eea aaa, oopy ac pe aa, aaec yaea aao. Ec ae o, aac oco eooeeoo pe aa, oaa opeeeo opae, eocyo poo ye, ee, e apa, o ea yaa ce-a ye oeea po cooec c yaea aao

 

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