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ac pe. yxaepc ye ay


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2.3.

 

ye ocoeoce pao p, x cpyyp, cocaa opao ypae ooae x acca, .e. oeee opeeee py, cooeceo paoy pay . (o pao acca ceye oa xapaepe, oee ocoeoc, pcye pa, ope oo oe x opeeee py.) paa acca p c:

peoo apa;

p opaa (po ocyapca opaa p);

paooe ooee (cayc p);

yac pex opo;

coca oapo, xc oeo 6peoo opa;

eco po eyapoo opoe;

cepa eeoc;

peoaa pex ceo.

1. B poo pae acoc o a peoo apa po e oape (apo-cpee), ooe, ae p. B Pocc oapy py paccapa a opaa c paa pecoo a, oppyy oo po ye opaa peypoa peo opo, ocyeceo ope acx yx opo, poox apaee opeeeo ece opeeeoe pe o ycaoe e paa.*

* ao P 0 oapx pax peo poe o 20 epa 1992 , 1. C.2.- 1.

 

Coae aoepx oec, poc yca pep a, cooae ocyapco ex ya oocpooo ecpoa acpoa ocyapcex popa oa po oe eco pacpeoc pa ex ya a eoxooc peypoa x e co copo ocyapca. o epe oppoa pa ex ya oae eoxooc ypee ceax opao, ocoe y opx a opaa po, opo peypoae oopoa ex ya e yeca p. Ta opaa c ooe p, cyecoae oopx oycoeo poo pao yopoa acox po.

ooe p ae pooy, apay eey epapxecy, epay ccey opaceoo epepacpeee acox pecypco. ooy ooa pa pecae coo ocoo ecy peypye po ex ya. Oa coae oooc oa acox pecypco x cooa p oocpoo ecpoa, pooca, ocyapcex popa oa.

B ooy py ca opaaopo opo, c eoepec apepco, ocyec co eeoc a ocoa e ooo p.* B oe o pyx cpa Pocc po e yaa ao ey a oape, a ae p, cocae oopx oo coac ooe oe. Coaco eepaoy aoy 0 pe ex ya o pac oo pa pec e e peoa, o oo pa a cee opoco coa opaaoo-paoo op. a pyeo copeee ooe p pepac e o opa, peypye aoae acoe p cpa, e o paeac, o opaa, opeee op, apae xapaep pa eyapox xocex ce.

*Bpeeoe ooee o peoax, peex opaaopa opo a pe ex ya epeo ocaoee eepao occ o py ex ya 19 eap 1996 23.

 

opaa ocya pa ocpao a coac ceae ae p, ope cy coe ce po a copeeo ae aoee eco opopyc co copo ocyapca ( e aa Pocc) oe o pyx o p. poo o ceecye, o po ao oee c opoe e yaa pooc a oox pax.

Ocooe oeco p, ox Pocc 1990-1991 ., poc a ape oapo-ooe. co oox ax p paec e o.

Toape p peoaa acee pe. Ha 1 apa 1997 . e a opaa peo opo occ o oap pa oy 84 oape p, x oce 25, Ca-eepype 4, 8 opoax Pocc o 2 p.

oox p acaec ooo 20, a ax 8. Haoee ae op e yaa pooc a ococx oox pax, Ca-eepype, Pocoe-a-oy, Caape, He Hoopoe, Hoocpce, Baocoe, Eaepype, ece Capaoe.

ax p caa pya ococa eaoca aa pa (B). Oao oa poo p e oo ao, o ocyapce opopa e yaa. B 1997 . B oya e occ o oap pa a pao poee opo c epc opaa (a pao coa ce cpooo pa).

2. o py opaa (po ocyapca coa p) a pyeo paa p a p:

y6o-paoe (ocyapcee p);

aco-paoe (ace p);

ceae p.

p, oce yo-paoo xapaep, opopyc ocyapco coac a ocoe aoa o pax. eo ao p oe ca o pepae aoo paoa, aece opo peecp e opeee paep oopoa. a, e ec ea p, ae oycac coepe ceo coaco popeae pao ea.

Tae p pacpocpae Epoe (pa, e, oa).

p, ee aco-paoo xapaep, pcy A, . Ha p op ocy oo yoy pyy , xox pey opopa. co eo ax p opaeo. p oo a, a pao, c ae oeca. x yca aa ec a opeeeoe oeco ae (). Ka e p oe aee xo ooo a (cepaa), oop ae ey pao aa ce oee p.

Ceae p ae xapaep oeao . Haoee pacpocpaee o oy cpe oox p. Hapep, Beca ooa pa. ax p xapaepo o, o pyax ocyapca axoc ac a p (ec oa coaa ope aoepoo oeca), o ae ey pao apa opa ypae pecaee coeo ac a opao opopoa ee. oc p.

copec p Pocc e cayc yo-paooo cya, axoeoc o opoe eocpeceo ee ceax ocyapcex opao ypae. Tao cayc pocccx p oycoac epaoc opoo-ocpeeco eeoc pe eocao pyx acx aao, cocox oece opaoe yopoae coaaex p.

p opaa p Pocc 1990-1991 a ceaa o pa cayc aco-paooo cya, eeoc opo ea po caoopaa caoypae peoo . p coaac e a ocyapcee opaa, aae opee eoe eco epapx ocyapceoo ypae o y opao eo occaa, a a aoepe oeca, xo epe o coe cyecoa o cooa ocyapcey coceoc. Poccce p ooc ac cy oo, o o pyoocyc ap c oa aooaeco coce paa caoypae, ycaaa oaoc peoo coea (oea) oac oo epe O copae ee eo, oopoe paec opao ypae pe.

3. Coae p ocoo pecppoac a aoepe eca apeca c opaeo oeceoc.

Ha epep p ypeac a oapeca (oeca) c opaeo oeceoc (Bopyca oapa pa, Aaca oapa pa, poca oapo-cpea pa, Kyacca eyapoa oapo-cpea pa ..), o ococ ypoe eoo ooeco yyp, pa, a ae ocyce eco paoo oco, peaepye x coae yopoae. o peocao ypee p oy cooy p oooe eoxox oyeo, ooo ao ao exa ypae pacpeee p, oop aoe cee ycpaa x. peee peao o, o pa ope oapeca oa apecppoaa ecx opaax ac. Oee p pecppoac a ace yae pep (apep, pa Aca).

o epe pa peo opo ce oee poc eoepec xapaep p. ooy eac x opaaoo-paoa opa. B acoee pe oo ae p ocac aoep oeca, oape p peyeceo pa opy eoepeco accoa, a ooe aooaeo ope o e opy eoepecoo apepca.

4. o ope ac oceee opax p oy ap op.

B opax a apx pax pa yace ee e, oe po pex ocpeo, ooy ocy eocpecex oyaee poao peo a ap. Copeee p a pyeo ocoo c ap, a a pea opo caa c co pca peye cooo poeccoaa.

B opax a opx pax poe ocox eo pex ocpeo oy pa yace ocee. p o ope p a yx o:

co (eao) opa pa, a oopo opaeo e oa ooac ycya ocpeo. x oe e , a a a ax pax oeceaec coo ocy peoe oo poao oyaee, .e. oa xapaepyec p c pooee opeee (poao oyaee);

opa pa ceaoo a, a oopo eocpeceo c poaa oyae ce oy aa e py ocpeo:

) poep, paoae o e a ce ea;

) ep, ocyece oepa a pe o coeo e a co ce,

Cee opoc p eocpeceo caa c ee opoo cpaee. ae ceo opoc p coyec peax ex oe opo. K oy e opoc p oo oc epa-c peoo exaa, ooeo yacoa opax epoeccoa yaca peoo pa.

Coepecoae peo opo po oee apoy xapaepy eeoc, opepye a poc poeccoaa, oppoae eox ce a ocoe aoo oep ey opy, oopoo eoxo opaee ca cyax oceee ocoa coeca paoa a pe. Kpoe oo, ap xapaep p cooecye ee oe a opaa (accoa) opyx (o. cpeo), coaaeo oecee opo yoeope x epeco, a e pee ecooo aaa. ooy p, aae epec po, ap xapaep oee peoee.

B acee pe Pocc ae ooe p c a p, a oape oy a ap, a op, xo cooec c ycao oco oapx p oocc ap

5. o oeaype oapo, xc oeo peoo opa o opaec a yepcae (oeo a) ceapoae. Taoe eee p peyeceo coyec acca o apx p.

Ha yepcax pax eyc op o pooy pyy paoopax oapo.

Ceapoae p e oapy ceaa ce aa o pya oapo. Cpe x e p pooo po yoceapoae.

p coa oapx p poceaac ee x ceaa, o o ocoeo xapaepo p, coaaex eca aoe oepa poeoo pooca.

Cy ceaa coc oy, o a p ee cea poae ce peac eocpecee pooe opee o o oapo . Ta ocaec coa cee o epa cooecyeo oapa a pe yeaec peo opo oopo.

Toape p, opoaec Pocc, c peyece yepca. o oeo o cao c eoxooc ac ao oepa oapo ycox opaeoo pooo oe apx pecypco. Oao o epe pa peo opo opeoaac ceaa oapx p. p o oa acea o pa apo:

) eca ooe p;

) ypeee eo p, a ae aoce ey .

B acoee pe 84 apecppoax oapx p 11 cepyc a opoe poye apopoeoo oeca, 9 opoe eao.

Ka oaae poa paa, peyeca ceapoax p c: cee epe opo, ocaee aa oopoax pooee, ee e, a opy oy oppoac poa oyae (pooe opee), apoaa opaoa peoo caapa, a ae epcoo opaa a poy ceaa p.

6. B acoc o eca po p poo opoe, ox y opea a po x po e a eyapoe aoae.

eyapoe p peca coo oco ocoo ecyeo oooo pa, oxaaeo ecoo ocyapc, a opo coepac ce y-poa a opeeee pee oap.

eyapoe p ocya opee poe oape ooe p. B paoe ax p oy yacoa pecae eox pyo pax cpa. Oe ocoeoc eya-pox p c oeceee coooo epeoa p, oyaeo o pe oepa, a ae aee ceyx (appax) ceo, oope a oooc oye p a pae opoax e a pax pax cpa. Cpa, e pacooe eyapoe p, o coa cooecy a, po aoo pe, oeceae x eeoc. eyapoe p opaec a oape, ooe ae.

eyapoe oape p ocoo cocpeoe pex cpaax: A, CA o. Ha o x cpa 90-x oax pxooc 98% ceo eyapooo peoo oopo. K eyapo oap pa ooc: A oocy py OKC (epc Oc ce), oocy py eao p.; CA p, pacooee H-ope ao; o p, coepae ce c oapa, opaac a poo pe. eyapo oap pa ca eoope p, ocyae peoae p, a oopx coepac ce o oe a oapo, apep, Beca (CA), apca, Ceca, Caca (ooca) p.

K eyapo oo pa ooc H-opcy, oocy, Tocy ooe p.

Haoae p ecy peeax ooo oeo oo ocyapca, ya ocoeoc pa pooca, opae opee oapo, pcye ao cpae. Ba, aoo op-o pe aoo ocyapca pecy poee appax ceo yac peo opoe p epeeo cpa ecoaxoe p.

oe p, ecyx Pocc, aac eyapo (apep, ococa eyapoa ooa). yaec, acee pe ae cpae ooe ypee ca eyapo e, a a a, po aoo pe, ecye ceac Pocc, e oecea coooo epeee p, oyaeo poecce peo . A yace pax ae cocae eo oex ocpax oa e ae ocoa oo ae p eyapo.

7. B acoc o cep eeoc p ae cpae oo ycoo pae a epae (coe), epeoae peoae (oae). Poccce p, x paeee xapaep ee-oc o e opepyc a peoae ocoeoc oapx oox po, ooecoe paopoae cpa.

8. o xapaepy aaex pex ceo poa paa ee ceye p:

peaoo oapa;

epce;

ooe;

ceae.

pa peaoo oapa xapaepa aaoo aa peo opo, ee oe epa ca peypoc oooe opa, pypoeoc opo opeeeoy ecy oeoc ycaoe paa, opo acco, oopo, cpaae o aecy oapa. Ha pax peaoo oapa coepee ceo ocyecec p ocyc apa a aooo a ocoe eo ocaeo xapaepc. p o e eco cpee peoe oyaee poao. Cao cyeceo ep p peaoo oapa c oaea ocaa oyee oapa oce poee po, .e. aeca cea cocea epeeee poaoo oapa o poaa oyae.

B acoee pe a pyeo p peaoo oapa coxpac eoopx cpaax e eaee oopo. O peca coo, a pao, oy op ooo opo oapa ecoo ae, p oopx oac o oepae pooca, ca opee coac paaxc cpaax oe a aoae epec p cope aex x ocyapc oapo. Ca, o ooec pax cpaax p peaoo oapa o e ocaoc, xo o cex aaoepoecx ocyapcax o cx op cyecy ape p, oee poe, ocpeo, pacope epepaaae p. Ceo p aac ocoo papaoo ox opao, a ae copo opa o pax peax oapo.

Pacpee peo opo peo coa p ooo a epcx p. x opaoae opaae pepaee p pa peaoo oapa po pa a oap. Oco paa epco opo c:

xapaep ceo;

c c po peaoo oapa epe cpaxoae (xepoae), a e epe ocay oapa;

apaee cpoo opeeea ypoaa, ea ax- yax ocoeoce, opeea coc apa, coacoaoe oeco opoo opaaec peo opae, oop ca. oc oeo opo pecae coo pao a ap;

oa ya yco oca oapa;

oeeoc ce aeoc ee opaeo, oeceaea Paceo aao p.

epce p c coeopa aco cya ocya opo. ae ceo o coac ecax aoe oepa eex pecypco, .e. eyx acox epax.

e aocoo peoa, ocaoo acc coox eex cpec epca opo eooa. pepaee p pa oapo po pa a oap, pa peaoo oapa po oo aaa eoeea ac poecca yce acoo aaa.

yy ceec aco cyo, ocya opeoc oox, ax apx po, epca pa pecae coo po e cooecyx oapo oaae cyeceoe e a pee opo, a aece e opex ceo c pea oapo (epe xepoae), oeo cee a oypeococooc p.

epca pa a aco cy ooe yeee aocoe peoae p a ca peaa oceyeo xpae oapa.

Ooe p ae pa oy po poo ooe. O coyc yce cpaxoa yaco peo opo, a a a oooc oyae ooo opa ooe y p ae pex ceo.

Ec epce p o ye ao ( CA o ao paoa c 1865 .), o ooe p oc coce eao ( 80-x oa XX .) oy a ox pax oy aac a epce, a ooe ce (ooca pa OKC). pocccx p ooo aee a oo pe cex o ceo: c pea oapo, epcx oox. ooy x oo oec cea pa.

Ha 1 apa 1997 . Pocc apecppoa pa ooo epco oce, Ca-eepypca epca pa, ce cpox opao a ococo eaoco ao pe. Topo epca ooa poo pye p (apep, Poccca pa, ococa epaa ooa pa, ococa acoo-epca pa, Cpca ooa pa p.).

 

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