Having the majority of votes at the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets and having met with a decisive non-acceptance of the socialist revolution by the Mensheviks and right-wing Socialist-Revolutionaries, the Bolsheviks formed a one-party government — the Council of People’s Commissars (Council of People's Commissars, SNTS).
To a large extent, this was a forced step: on the eve of the opening of the congress, the Bolsheviks proposed to the leaders of the socialist parties to enter the government, but they refused. In the name of the government - "working and peasant" - was designated its class character. True, there were no workers and peasants in the Council of People's Commissars. All its members were professional revolutionaries, the majority came out of the intelligentsia, but, like their party as a whole, they claimed the role of true representatives and defenders of the interests of the working people, above all the workers.
In the first days, the government, like the leadership of the Bolshevik Party (its Central Committee), found itself in a state of crisis caused by a split in its composition. Several members of the Sovkarkom and members of the Central Committee of the party (G. E. Zinoviev, L. B. Kamenev, and others) agreed with the demand of the All-Russian Executive Committee of the Railwaymen’s Union (Vikzhel), in which the Mensheviks and Right-wing Socialist-Revolutionaries prevailed, to create "uniform socialist "government with the inclusion of Mensheviks, right-wing Socialist-Revolutionaries, popular socialists.
This would be a realization of the idea of a multi-party democratic socialist government that was nourishing: in 1917 the left part of the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries and met with the sympathy of a number of Bolshevik leaders. The weight of the requirements of the Vikzhel provided a complex domestic political situation. In Moscow, the transfer of power was obviously delayed, and parts of Krasnov-Kerensky were under Petrograd. Civil war was becoming a reality.
However, most of the members of the Central Committee, headed by Lenin, refused to accept the demands of Vikzhel, believing that this would put the revolution on the rails of bourgeois-democratic, rather than socialist, development. In response, people's commissars V.P. Milyutin, V.P. Nogin, A.I. Rykov and I.A. Teodorovich left their posts. Instead of the Bolsheviks A. G. Schlichter and G. I. Petrovsky who were resigned to the government were introduced.
This episode was a continuation of the pre-October dispute in the biggest Shevian party on the readiness of the agrarian and peasant country to make the transition to socialism, about the possibility of one party to realize its socialist program in a state where the proletariat is a minority of the population.
Negotiations on the political bloc of the Bolsheviks and the Left Social Revolutionaries began in the days of the armed uprising in Petrograd. The Left Social Revolutionaries sought to create a homogeneous socialist government from the Bolsheviks to the popular socialists.
A step on the way to the conclusion of the bloc was the approval of the Nakaz on November 17, 1917, which consolidated the agreement of the Bolsheviks and the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries on the mutual relations of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (All-Russian Central Executive Committee) and the SNK, and a document on partial changes in the composition of the SNK and the People's Commissariat. On the night of December 10, a joint work agreement was signed. The Council of People's Commissars included as People's Commissars: I. 3. Steinberg - Justice, P.P. Pro-Shyan - Posts and Telegraphs, A.L. Kolegayev - Agriculture (since November 25).
New people's commissars were also formed, who were headed by members of the Left Socialist Revolutionary Party: V. Ye. Trutovsky - for local self-government, V. A. Karelin - property of the Russian Republic. V.A. Algasov, who joined the work of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, received the status of "people's commissar without a portfolio, but with a decisive vote." The seventh member of the government from the Left Social Revolutionaries was MA Diamonds, who was appointed on January 19, 1918, a member of the board of the People's Commissariat of Finance.
Other left-wing Socialist-Revolutionaries were also involved in the work of the SNK: deputy commissars N. N. Alekseev (Nar-komzem) and A. A. Schreider (People's Commissariat), as well as board members P. E. Lazimir, L. E. Kronik, M. A. Le-vin et al.
A bipartisan Soviet government existed from December 1917 to March 1918, when the Left Social Revolutionaries left the Council of Commissars in protest over the conclusion of the Brest peace. By that time, unanimity on a number of problems no longer existed, and the disputes at the meetings of the Council of People's Commissars assumed a sharp character. Nevertheless, only in November-December 1917, at the 37 meetings of the CPC, over 460 questions were considered related to the political, military, economic, and cultural life of the republic.