The end of the civil war in the regions. Red Army and the Bolshevik movement. HISTORY OF SOVIET RUSSIA - USSR

SOVIET RUSSIA. Brief history of the USSR



The end of the civil war in the regions. Red Army and the Bolshevik movement


In parallel with the battles on the Polish and Wrangel fronts, the Red Army developed in 1920 an offensive in other directions. In May 1920, Soviet troops controlled almost the entire territory of Azerbaijan, where after a successful uprising on April 28, the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed in Baku. It did not succeed in extending Soviet power to Armenia in May, but after the defeat of the nationalist Dashnak government in the war with Turkey in the late autumn of 1920, Soviet troops launched a new offensive.


On December 4, the units of the Red Army and the Armenian provincial detachments entered Yerevan, by mid-July 1921, controlling the situation as a whole throughout Armenia. By February 1921, the beginning of the assertion of Soviet power in Georgia dates from. February 25, 1921 Tiflis became Soviet, and in March, the rest of Georgia was already controlled by Soviet troops.


The approval of the Soviet authorities in the Transcaucasus was the result of both successful actions of the Red Army and the Bolshevik movement, especially the strong ones in Baku and certain regions of Georgia. In parallel with the establishment of Soviet power in the Transcaucasus, similar processes took place in Central Asia. The offensive of the Turkestan Front (M.V. Frunze) in the fall of 1920 led to the establishment of Soviet power in the region and the formation of the Bukhara People's Soviet Republic.


More difficult was the situation in the Far East, where the Red Army was opposed by the white movement and nationalist regimes that were not defeated in 1919, but by the Japanese army of 175 thousand. Under these conditions, the Soviet government set about the creation on April 6, 1920 of a buffer democratic state — the Far Eastern Republic (FER), closely associated with the RSFSR. The FER included Trans-Baikal, Amur, Primorsk, Sakhalin, and Kamchatka regions. G. X. Eyhe, who previously commanded the 5th Army of the Soviet troops in Siberia, was appointed head of the People’s Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the FER.


During 1920, parts of the NRA conducted military operations with the troops of Ataman Semyonov and Kapple units, which controlled a large part of the territory of the FER. Only as a result of the third offensive on October 22, 1920, parts of the NRA took Chita with the support of the partisans.


With the help of Kappelev and Semenov retreated from Transbaikalia, Japan strengthened in Primorye, where on May 26, 1921 the power of the Primorsky regional administration was overthrown and the pro-Japanese government of S. D. Merkulov was created. Simultaneously, parts of R. F. Ungern invaded Transbaikalia from Mongolia. In the current difficult situation, the Soviet government provided military, economic and financial assistance to the FER. Mr. X. Eiche as commander of the NRA DDA was replaced by V. K. Blucher. In June, Ungern retreated to Mongolia, where in August 1921 most of his troops were surrounded and destroyed by parts of the NRA.


 In the autumn of 1921, the situation became aggravated again, but ultimately as a result of the fiercest fighting in Volochaevka (January-February 1922) with 40-degree frost, parts of the NRA turned the tide and returned the previously lost Khabarovsk. The further offensive of the NRA units (new commander I. P. Uborevich) came in October 1922.


On October 25, the NRA troops entered Vladivostok , and on November 14, 1922 the People's Assembly of the FER announced the establishment of Soviet power in the Far East the composition of the RSFSR. Soviet power was established in all the regions where civil war was raging before.



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