Organization of Education and Science. The GOELRO Plan. HISTORY OF SOVIET RUSSIA - USSR

SOVIET RUSSIA. Brief history of the USSR



Organization of Education and Science. The GOELRO Plan


After the strike ended on January 6, 1918, teachers' associations, and later other professional unions of civil servants, made contact with the authorities, taking part in the education reform. The tuition fee was canceled, the teaching of the Law of God was abolished, a new spelling was introduced. The foundation of primary education was the "United Labor School". Throughout Russia, there were circles and courses for the elimination of illiteracy (educational program), evening schools, and people's universities. In just the first three years of the Soviet government, about 7 million people were taught to read and write.


In the summer of 1918, the system of higher education was reorganized. In June 1918 the Socialist Academy of Social Sciences was founded, and in August the Council of People's Commissars signed the decree “On the rules of admission to higher institutions”, according to which proletarian youth were given the right to enter higher education institutions without a secondary education certificate and exams. October 1, 1918 abolished all academic degrees and titles. The creation in early 1919 of a system of working faculties for the preparation of working young people entering higher educational institutions was a further step towards the proletarianization of students and the creation of a socialist intelligentsia in the future.


The fight against illiteracy, the introduction of a generally accessible educational system pursued specific political goals of the cultural revolution as one of the components of the process of building socialism. As their position was consolidated, the Soviet government increasingly controlled the teaching staff of schools and universities. In December 1918, by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the Union of Teachers was dissolved as an anti-Soviet organization, and the professional organizations of university teachers were later dissolved in more numerous trade union organizations of the People's Commissariat of Education.


The involvement of the scientific intelligentsia in the development of the economic policy of the Soviet state also seemed important for the Soviet leadership. Relatively few scientists (about 10 thousand people in 1914), with rare exceptions, were negatively disposed towards the Soviet government. Although the Soviet government, in the person of its chairman V.I. Lenin, stated that "without the guidance of specialists from various branches of knowledge, technology and experience, the transition to socialism is impossible", the practice of interrelationships between the new government and old specialists often testified the reverse. It took a certain period of "getting used to" the harsh reality, so that the majority of scientists switched to the position of cooperation with the Soviet authorities, while retaining in their souls their opposition to the October revolution.


Vzhivanie was all the more successful because the Soviet government, even in the conditions of the civil war, gave science the closest attention. Already in December 1917, the Scientific Department began to function under the People's Commissariat of Education, uniting all institutions that are engaged in natural science work. Scientists began to receive from the state specific, including material, assistance.


The appropriations for science in the RSFSR in 1918 exceeded that of 1917 by almost four times. In the first two years of Soviet rule, 33 large institutes were established in the country, including institutes for Physicochemical Analysis, Platinum, Optical, Ceramic, X-ray and Radiological, Solid Research, Fertilizer, Central Aerohydrodynamic, etc. The total number of By 1923, the institutes reached 55, and by 1927 there were more than 90 of them. The fruitful cooperation of the Soviet government and intelligentsia resulted in the development and implementation of the plan of the State Commission for Electrification of Russia (GOELRO ) in 1920. Designed for 10-15 years, the plan provided for the construction of 30 power plants with a total capacity of 1,750 thousand kW, with further radical reconstruction based on the electrification of all sectors of the national economy.


The GOELRO Plan (G. M. Krzhizhanovsky, G. O. Graftio) became the basis for the restoration of the Russian economy, its modernization. V.I. Lenin called GOELRO the "second party program", voicing the well-known formula "communism - this is Soviet power plus electrification of the whole country."



History of the Soviet Union and Russia in the 20th Century







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