SOVIET RUSSIA. Brief history of the USSR



The evolution of the constitutional system of the USSR in the 1920-1930s. Dzerzhinsky


Since the adoption of the Constitution of the USSR in 1924 and until the adoption of the Constitution of the USSR in 1936, there have been great changes in the state structure of the USSR. Changes were of several types and are associated with the formation of new union republics, with the change of state-legal forms of various autonomous entities and with the strengthening of the role of the center, the federal authorities as a result of the expansion and strengthening of the administrative-command management system.


In 1925, the Turkmen and Uzbek SSRs were incorporated into the USSR, and in 1931 the Tajik SSR. Thus, by the beginning of the 30s. in the USSR, there were already seven union republics. Certain changes in the national structure of the USSR also occurred at the republican level. The borders of the Union republics were clarified: certain regions of the Vi-teb, Gomel and Smolensk regions were ceded from the RSFSR to Belarus, and part of the territories of the Uzbek SSR to Tajikistan. The autonomous republics of the RSFSR were further formalized: they were transformed into the autonomous republics of Buryat-Mongol and Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1923), Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1925), Mordovian and Ud-Murta Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1934), etc.


Similar processes took place in other republics. In 1924, the Moldavian ASSR was formed as part of the Ukrainian SSR. In the Transcaucasus, the status of autonomy was Nagorny Karabakh (1923) and the Nakhichevan Territory (1924) in the Azerbaijan SSR, Abkhazia (1930) in the Georgian SSR. Even more was the number of educated in the late 20s - early 30s. national districts: 10 only in the RSFSR. At the same time, the status of autonomies was lowered among certain peoples in the North Caucasus.


Since the late 20s. There has been a tendency towards the extension of the rights of the allied organs by narrowing the competence of the republics. The number of union and union republican enterprises grew, and since 1930 all crediting has been concentrated in the union organs. In 1929, the right of the republics to directly raise questions to the CEC of the USSR was abolished: now they had to submit them in advance to the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. In the Constitutions of the RSFSR, ZSFSR and the TSSR, there were no chapters on the sovereign rights of the republics and the right to secede from the USSR.


Changed the competence of the highest bodies of the USSR. The Congress of Soviets gradually lost its significance, since 1927 it met every two years instead of the previous annual congresses. The most important decisions have often been taken not at congresses of Councils of the USSR or sessions of the CEC of the USSR, but by the party organs. The reports of the government and the people's commissars at the congresses were reporting and informational, rather than staged. Since 1929, the terms of convocations of congresses were violated, and congresses themselves acquired a ceremonial character. Since the beginning of the 30s. at sessions of the CEC of the USSR, a new procedure was introduced, providing for the approval of a list of resolutions adopted by the Presidium of the CEC. In January 1934, 34 laws were adopted without discussion of laws and no changes on the list, and in January 1936 already 66 resolutions. The Presidium of the CEC of the Soviets (21 people) concentrated a large number of powers: the exclusive competence of the Presidium included issues of private and general amnesty, on citizenship and its deprivation.


The further centralization of management, the transfer of an increasing number of management functions to the federal authorities along with the merging of the party and state apparatus led to the Presidency becoming an increasingly bureaucratic authority with a huge apparatus. In total, the CEC and the Presidium of the CEC were subordinate to more than 100 institutions, several newspapers and magazines, 34 agricultural schools, several dozen scientific and educational institutions. In many matters, the CEC Presidium replaced the CPC, often duplicating its activities. SNK, still being an important body of executive and legislative power, was actually subordinate to the Presidium of the CEC of the USSR. The legislative functions of the SNK narrowed.


Along with the change and redistribution of powers of the highest authorities in the 20-30s. there was an increase in the punitive-repressive apparatus and the power commissariats. In 1934, the RVS was liquidated, and the People's Commissariat for Naval Affairs was reorganized into the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR. The bodies of state security and public order were subjected to a serious reorganization. On March 28, 1924, the CEC of the USSR approved the "Provision on the rights of the OGPU in terms of administrative expulsions and imprisonment in a concentration camp", according to which the adoption of resolutions on similar measures was assigned to the Special Meeting of the OGPU consisting of three members of the college and the Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the USSR.


 In 1927, the OGPU was granted the right to consider a number of cases in an extrajudicial manner, while the prosecutor’s office was forbidden to independently initiate proceedings against OGPU employees. In commemoration of services to the state, on December 14, 1927, the OGPU was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. Circulars OGPU from October 29, 1928 and April 8, 1931 secured all the judicial rights of the "triples". Representatives of the regional committees of the CPSU (B.) And executive committees were now included in the composition of the "triples". Further expansion of the powers of the OGPU-NKVD fell on the 30s. On April 24, 1930, the camp management of the OGPU under the SNK of the USSR was formed, in February 1931 it was renamed the Main Administration of the OGPU camps (GULAG ).


The total number of prisoners in the camps and colonies of the Gulag will increase from 179 thousand in 1931 to 2 million in 1941. Every third prisoner of the Gulag was convicted for political reasons, and the rest to some extent were victims of Stalin's social and economic policies mode. Against the creation of the OGPU camp system, Uglanov (People's Commissar of Labor of the USSR, until April 1929, first secretary of the Moscow regional committee and candidate member of the Political Bureau), Tolmachyov (People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR), Shirvind (head of the NKVD detention centers of the RSFSR) spoke up. However, Stalin supported the position of Yagoda, Bokiy and Krylenko, who represented the interests of the OGPU and the prosecutor's office. The country has become covered by a network of new camps and colonies under construction.


The expansion of the rights of the OGPU continued even after the formation of the Gulag. At the end of 1931, the police and criminal investigation department was finally assigned to the OGPU, where the Main Inspectorate for Police and Criminal Investigation was established (since 1932, the Main Police Department). In 1932, special military prosecutor's offices of the OGPU were introduced in the regions, territories and republics (they were liquidated only in 1954). At the same time, on June 25, 1932, the USSR Central Election Commission was forced to adopt a resolution “On revolutionary legality”, where it condemned violations of the law during collectivization by the OGPU bodies.


Criticism of the OGPU, along with the demand of the Stalinist leadership to centralize all the work of law enforcement agencies, led in 1934. to the formation of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR. The NKVD of the USSR became a full body of the OGPU of the USSR, which was transformed into the General Directorate of State Security. The structure of the People's Commissariat also included the Main Directorate of Workers 'and Peasants' Militia, the Main Directorate of Border and Internal Guard, the Gulag, the General Directorate of Fire and other organizations. Instead of the judicial board of the OGPU, a Special Meeting was created under the People's Commissar of the NKVD. The picture of strengthening the powers of the punitive-repressive authorities was complemented by the reform of the USSR Prosecutor’s Office. On July 20, 1933, by a resolution of the CEC and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, the Procuracy of the USSR was established, and the prosecutors of the republics were subordinate to the Prosecutor of the USSR, and later, in 1936, they were appointed to them.


Changes in the system of state institutions in the 1930s testified to the folding of the foundations of the tota-lit system with a powerful punitive-repressive apparatus. At the same time, personnel changes in the composition of state institutions of the USSR were of great importance. During the 20s. Stalin's supporters were promoted to the most important posts in the government and other central institutions. After the forced resignation on January 26, 1925 of L. D. Trotsky and the death on October 31, 1925, on the operating table of his successor M. V. Frunze from November 6, 1925, the Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs was headed by the nominee of Stalin K. E. Voroshilov. As a result of the death in 1926 of the head of the OGPU, F.E. Dzerzhinsky, his place was taken by R. F. Menzhinsky, who was seriously ill, whose functions were actually performed by his deputy G. G. Yagoda. Thus, already in the mid-20s. Stalin controlled the two most important law enforcement agencies. After the crackdown on the right-wing opposition and the removal of the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR A. I. Rykov, the head of government from December 19, 1930 was V.Molotov. In the same period, on July 1, 1930, the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs was headed by M. M. Litvinov, who was more loyal to Stalin's rule than his predecessor, G. V. Chicherin. During the 20-30s. Stalin steadily adhered to the principle “personnel decide everything” proclaimed by him, consistently forming the apparatus of personal power.


History of the Soviet Union and Russia in the 20th Century







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