>>>

  >>

 


:

 

1.3. B p

 

yeo oa ocoeoce pao p x eoxoo accpoa, .e. oe opeeee py, coeceo paoy pay acca. (o po acca ceye oa xapaepe, oee ocoeoc, ooe oe yopye p opeeee py.) K npuaa accuuauu up ooc:

peoro oapa;

p opraa (po ocyapca opaa p);

paooe ooee (cayc p);

opa yac oceee pex opax;

oeaypa oapo, xc oeo peoo opa;

eco po poo opoe;

cepa eeoc;

peoaa pex ceo;

xapaep eeoc.

1. B upoo npamue acoc o a peoro oapa npumo em moape u moapo-cpee, ooe, ame upu u upu mpya. Coaco aoy P " oapx pax peo poe" "o moapo upe nouaemc opauau c npaau puuecoo ua, opupya onmo po nyme opauauu u peyupoau upeo mo-ou, ocyecmeo ope acx nyux mopo, npooux apaee onpeeeo ecme u onpeeeoe pe no ycmaoe e npaua".*

* 20 1992 . .1. . 2. . 1.

Coae aoepx oec, poc yca pep a, cooae ocyapco ex ya oocpooro ecpoa acpoa ocyapcex popa oa po oe eco pacpeoc pa ex ya a eoxooc peypoa x e co copo ocyapca. o epe oppoa pa ex ya oae eoxooc ypee ceax opao, ocoo ye oopx c opo peypoae oopoa ex ya, ee yeca p. Ta coa ooe p, cyecoae oopx oycoeo poo pao yopoa acox po.

ooe p pa ae pooy, apay eey epapxecy, epay ccey opaceoro epepaceee acox . ooy ooa upa npecmaem coo nocmoo ecmyu peyupye po ex ya. Oa coae oooc oa acox pecypco x cooa p oocpoo ecpoa ocyapcex popa oa.

Ceye oe, o a pyeo copeee ooe p pepac e oo opa, peypye aoae acoe p cpa, e o paeac, o opaa, opeee op, apae xapaep pa eyapox xocex ce.

opaa ocya pa ocpao a coac ceae ae p. Bae p cy coe ce po a copeeo ae aoee eco opopyc co copo cyapca ( e aa Pocc) oe o pyx o p. Mpoo o ceecye, o aee po ao p ye oocoea o opo e yaa.

Ocooe oeco p, ox Pocc 1990-1991 ., poc a oape oapo-ooe. co oox ax p paec e o. o coco a 12 ayca 1991 . Pocc coe opaa ac o apecppoao 110 p*, x epe oox (Ca-eepypa, Coa (Moca), Mococa eyapoa ooa, Mococa ooa) p ax (Mococa eaoca, Ca-eepypca aa, Cpca eaoca).

*ooa . 1991. 40. C. 17.

B epe o eeoc ae cpae ocycoao aooaeoe paeee p a oape, ooe ae, ooy oape p opoa a oapa, a e yaa, a ooe ceapoac oo a ex yaax. B acoee pe oape p e pao opoa e yaa oo p a ceaoro oooro oea cooecye e a opro e yaa.

oee ceax oapo-oox p poccco ooe cao c e, o copee ocpea (opoa) oee paoa a oo pe oopeeo a c oapa, a c e yaa. Kpoe oo, paeee po peye o poaa e oo ooeoro pee, o ooex cpec, apep, a oyy pa opo a pax pax. yaec, aeee pae pa ycee oypeo op ooe Pocc opeye ceaa p. o ye peyao pa caoo pa eaco o eaeca rocyapca poe .

2. o npuuny opauauu (pou ocyapcma coauu up) eo pauam a ua up:

yo-paoe (ocyapcee p);

aco-paoe (ace p).

, oce yo-paoo xapaep, Pocc opo ocyapco coac a ocoe aoa P o pax. eo ao p oe ca o pepae aoo aoa, aece opo peecp e opeee aep oopoa. a, e ec ea p, ae ovcac coepe oepa coaco popeae pao ea. Tae p pacpocpae Epoe (pa, e, oa).

p, ee aco-paoo xapaep, paoa A, CA. Ha p op ocy oo yoro pya , xox pey . co eo ax p opaeo. p oro a c ae oeca. x yca aa ec a opeeeoe oeco ae (cepao). Ka e p oe aee xo ooro a (cepaa), oop ae ey pao aa ce oee p.

copec p Pocc e cayc yo-paooro ya, axoeoc o opoe eocpeceo ee ceax ocyapcex opao ypae. Tao cayc pocccx p oycoac epaoc opoo-ocpeeco eeoc ae cpae eocao pyx acx aao, cocox oece opaoe x yopoae.

p opaa p Pocc 1990-1991 . a ceaa oa pa cayc aco-paooro cya, eeoc oopoo ea po caoopaa caoypae peoro cooeca. Bo co cyae p coaac e a ocyapcee opaa, aae opeeeoe eco epapx ocyapceoo ypae o y opao eo occaa, a a aoepe oeca.

Moe ooc ooc poccce p ac po accoa, oope pyoocyc apy c oa aooaeco coce paa caoypae.* O ca, o a ac xapaep p yaae e oo ype yca, peaepy ee eeoc, o oaoc peoro coea (oea) oac oo epe O copae ee eo, ocyce oaoo aae a ooc pyooce p ( ce a o aepa).

* C.: poe caoe oapx p CCCP // Bopoc oo 1991. 7. . 48.

 

3. Coae upu ocoo peucmpupoauc a auoe oecma uu moapuecma c opaueo omemcme.

Ocoeo a epep p ypeac a oapec (oeca) c opaeo oeceoc (Bopyca a pa, Aaca oapa pa, poca oapo-cea pa, Kyacca eyapoa apo-cpea p ..), o ococ ypoe eoo ooeco yyp, pa, a ae ocyce eco paoo oco, epye x coae yopoae. o peoca ypee p oy cooy p orooe eoxo oyeo, ooo ao ao exa ypae papeee p, oop aoe cee ycpaa x. peee peao o, o pa ope oapec oa apecppoaa ecx opax ac. Oe p percppoac a ace yae pep (apep, pa "Aca").

B c c e o ocyapco oao oaa coece pa, opepoa a eoepec xapaep eeoc, c 1993 . p aa peopaoac eoepece acoa. Kpoe o, opaaoo-paoa opa e acoa oeae aoy P " oapx pax peo oproe" cococye oee eo cpyype ee ypa.

4. o ope yacmu nocemumee mopax upu oym m ompmu u .

B mopax a apmx upax pa yace ee ocoe e, oe po pex ocpeo, ooy ocaoo cooo poeccoaa.

B mopax a ompmx upax, poe ocox eo pex ocpeo, oy pa yace ocee. p ope p a yx o:

co ("eao") opa pa, a oopo opaeo e oa ooac ycya ocpeo. x ae ooe oe e , a a a ax pax oeceaec coo ocy peoe oo e- aao-oyaee (e ao cyae oeope peoee, a aa cpoc). Ta opao, co opa pa xapaepyec p c pooee opeee;

pa pa ceaoo a, a opo eocpeceo c poaa oyae pyc e py ocpeo;

1) poep, paoae o e a ce ea;

2) ep, ocyece oepa a pe o coeo e a co ce.

B cooec c ycaa oco oapx p ae cpae c ap, xo yee peoo oopoa oa peac opa eocpecee e (poa oyae) ye aee x cayco paooo ocooo ocee ae ceo oepaoo ae.

K pa apo a oo oec ae p, a Poccca oapo-cpea pa, Cpca oapo-cpea p, Mococa eyapoa ooa, Kyacca eyapoa oapo-cpea; pa opo a ca Mococy apy py, Mepecyacy yepay, Pocapopy. Cee opoc peoro copa eocpeceo caa c opoo cpaee p, ae ceo opoc p coyec peax ex oe . K oy e opoc p oo oc epaoc peoo exaa, ooero yacoa opax epoeccoa yaca peoro pa. Coepecoae peo opo po oee apy xapaepy eeoc, opepye a poc poeccoaa, oppoae eox ce a ocoe aoo oep ey opy, oopoo eoxo opaee ca cyaoro ocee ocoa coeca paoa a pe.

Kpoe o, ap xapaep p cooecye cao ee oe a opaa (accoa) opyx (ocpe), coaaeo oecee opro yoeope epeco, a e pee ecpoa aaa. ooy p, aae epec opo, ap xapaep oee peoee.

5. o oeamype moapo, uxc o6emo upeoo opa, ou nopaemc a yuepcae (oeo muna) u euauupoae.

a yuepcax upax eyc op o pooy pyy paoopax oapo.

Cneuauupoae upu e ooapy ceaa ceaa o pya oapo. Cpe x e p pooro po yoceapoae.

p coa oapx p poceaac ee x ceaa, o o ocoeo xapaepo p, coaaex ecax aoe oepa poeoro pooca.

Cy ceaa coc oy, o aoep (e) p ee ceapoao ce peac eocpecee pooe o o oapo py. Ta ocaec coa cee oepa cooecyeo oapa a pe yeaec peo opo oopo.

Toape p, opoaec Pocc, c peyeceo yepca. oeo cao c eoxooc acao oepa oapo ycox opa-eoro pooo oea oapx . Oao, a ye oeaoc, ceaa oapx p ye aaac. p o cneuauau up aucum o pa aopo:

) eca ooe p. Hapep, co, o Teca oapo-ooa pa ye ceapoac a opoe e poya ee epepao, a Kyea oapo-cpea pa a ye;

) ypeee eo p, a ae aoce ey .

Coaco coa ococaapa PCCP o coco a 12.08.1991 , 85% p o oeo x ca c yepca, apyc a poo cepe poy oapo. aa oapx p opepoac a poay epa, x ecoa oo epao paoe cpa. Kpoe oo, ee oaa p ceapoac a ye-poae opex o poy.

Ka oaae poa paa, npeuyecmau cneuauupoax up c: cee epe opro, ocaee aa ooopoax pooee, ee e, a oopy oy opepoac poa oyae (pooe opee), apoaa opaoa peoo caapa, a ae epcoro opaa a poy ceaa p.

6. B acoc o eca po p poo opoe, oex y opea a po x po e a eyapoe aoae.

Meyapoe upu npecmam coo oco u nocmoo ecmyeo onmooo pa, oxamau ecoo ocyapcm, a omopo coepamc ceu ynu-npoau a onpeeee upee moap.

Meyapoe p ocya opee poe oape ooe p. B paoe ax p oy yacoa pecae eox pyo pax . Oe ocoeoc eyapox p c oeceee coooo epeoa p, oyaeo o pe oepa, a ae aee ceyx (appax) ceo, oope a oooc oye p a pae opoax e a pax pax cpa.

Cpa, e pacooe eyapoe p, o coa cooecy a, opo aoo pe, oeceae x eeoc. Meyapoe p opaec a oape, ooe ae.

Meyapoe oape p cocpeooe pex cpaax: A, CA o. Ha o x cpa 90- roa pxooc 98% cero eyapooo peoo o6opoa. K eyapo oap pa ooc: A oocy py OKC (epc Oc ce), oocy py eao p.; CA p, pacooee H-ope ao; o p, coepae ce c oapa, opaac a poo pe. Meyapo oap pa ca eoope p, ocyae peoae p, a oopx coepac ce o oe a oapo, apep, Beca (CA), apca, Ceca, Caca (ooca) p.

Hauoae upu ecmym npeeax ooo omeo moo ocyapcma, yumam ocoeocmu paumu npouocma opaeu u nompeeu amepuax pecypco, npucyue ao cmpae. Ba, aoo opo pe aoro ocyapca pey poee appax ceo yac peo opoe p - epeeo pa ecoaxoe p.

Moe p, ecyx Pocc, aac eyapo (apep, Mococa eyapoa ooa, Meyapoa pooocea pa, Kyacca eyapoa oapo-cpea pa). yaec, acoee pe ae cpae ooe ypee ca eyapo e, a a a, opo aoo pe, ecye ceac Pocc, e oecea coooo epeee p, oyaeo poecce peo . A yace opax ae cocae eo oex ocpax oa e ae ocoa ooc ae p eyapo.

7. B acoc om cep emeocmu upu ae cmpae oo ycoo paeum a empae (cmoue), epeuoae u peuoae .

Poccce p, x paeee xapaep eeoc o e opepyc a peoae ocoeoc oapx po ooecoe paopoae cpa. eopaecoe ooee p copee cooecye acpao-eppopaoy ee x eppopax opao occaa CCCP paee oox a ypae Mcepca opo. Ceye oe, o epppaoe ooee p cpae oo cooecoa epa opox ce pacopx ye, a o ee ec poo pae. Hapep, aypca pa oe Meyapoa H-opca pa oe, caxapa aao pacoaaec e ecax pooca, a epax eyapoo opo.

Bece c e pae peo opo Pocc cococoao oppoa epax p, oope cocpeooe Moce pea yac pex pax poao oyaee pax peoo Pocc (apep, cocae eo Poccco oapo-cpeo p 1991 . 46 o pyrx paoo cpa; poe oro, 20 x pecy CCCP).

Mepeoae p, a pao, oe pao pooca opee ax-o oapo, apep, Teco-ococa ea pa "epec".

oco p Pocc ceye oec oa peoa.

8. o xapamepy onepau upoa npamua upeo mopou eem ceyue u up:

peaoo oapa;

epce;

ooe;

ceae.

upa peaoo moapa xapaepa aaoro aa peo opo, ee oe epa ca peypoc oooe opa, pypoeoc opo opeeeoy ecy oeoc ycaoe paa, opo acco, oopo, cpaae o aecy oapa, oee ap oopx aoaee. Ha pax peaoo oapa coepee ceo ocyecec p ocyc apa a aooo a ocoe eo ocaeo xapaepc. p o e eco cpee peoe oyaee . Cao cyeceo epo p peaoro oapa c oaea poaa ocaa oapa oce poee .

B acoee pe a pyeo p peaoo oapa coxpac eoopx cpaax e eaee oopo. O peca coo, a pao, oy op ooo opro oapa ecoo ae, p oopo oa o oepae pooca, ca opee coac paaxc cpaax oe a aoae epec p cope aex x ocyapc oapo. Ca, pax aacecx cpaax p peaoo oapa o e ocaoc, xo o cex aaoepoecx ocyapcax o cx op cyecy ape p, oee opoe, aepo, pacope epepaaae p. Ceo p aac ocoo papaoo ox opao, a ae copo opa o pax ax cecoxocex oapo, a epo, aca, xoo p. Topoe oepa a x pax coca cero 10-15% o oeo peoro oopoa.

Pacpee peo opo peo coa p ooo a epcx up. x opaoae opaae pepaee p pa peaoo oapa po pa a oap. Oco paa epco opo c:

xapaep ceo;

c c po peaoro oapa epe cpaxoae (xepoae), a e epe ocay oapa;

apaee cpoo opeeea ypoaa, ea ax-o yax ocoeoce opeea cooc oapa, coacoaoe oeco ooporo opaaec peo opae, oop caoc oe opo pecae coo pao a oap;

oa ya yco oca oapa;

oeeoc ce aeoc x opaeo, oeceaea Paceo aao p.

epce p c coeopa aco cya, ocya opo. ae cero o coac ecax aoe oepa eex pecypco, .e eyx acox epax.

e aocoo peoa, ocaoo acc coox eex cpec epca po eooa.

pepaee oapo p pa apo po pa a ap, pa peaoo apa po oo oapoo aaa o eoeea ac poecca yce acooo aaa.

yy ceec aco cyo, ocya opeoc oapx po, epca pa oopeeo pecae coo po e cooecyx oapo oaae cyeceoe e a pee opo, a aece e opex ceo c pea oapo (epe xepoae) oeo cee a oypeococooc p.

epca pa a aco cy ooe aocoe peoae p a ca peaa oceyeo xpae apa eo yeee.

Onuoe upu ae pa oy po poo ooe. O coyc cpaxoa yaco peo opo, a a a oooc oyae ooo opa ooe y p ae pex ceo.

Ec epce p o ye ao ( CA ao paoa c 1848 .), o ooe p oc coce eao ( 80-x oax XX .). ooy a ox pax oy aac a epce, a ooe e (ooca pa OKC). pocccx p ooo aee a oo pe cex o ceo: c pea oapo, epcx oox. ooy x oo oec cea upa.

9. B acoc om xapamepa emeocmu emc upu npue (oepecue) u ecnpue (eoepecue),

ocoy p opaoac a ce oee aao (eex cpec) ooceo eooo ca aoepo-ecopo, o coaco oeoy ay yca aa oa oy opeeey p, oeay e eo. B oce cyae pa coaaac a oeee poao ypoe x oepa a pe. ooy epoaao eee p o pao cao p e peycapaoc. p oec y aoro oeoo yaca o coepe pox oepa a cao pe. Heoxooc oepeco eeoc p aaec oecee ea cox eo. Ta, epoaao a pocccx pax ea eco y-poaa poepc eca (.e. opo pao aac peo eeoc).

Ceye ee pa oepy, o pa o eoepeca opaa, oa coaec ypee ea oee poee oepecx oepa ( ocya opeoce ypeee eo ye-poae). e o opaa p coco ce apa y ee ypeee eo p poee oepecx eo. eee cpeca ypeee eo p, oyee a opa, aee a pe, apac a oeca apa, cax c yopoae p, cypoae coa ooe oopyoa exooecoro poecca pep-ypeee eo p, oee aeca ycaeo poy, opoee pae oypeo op, pepoc, oepeco yca coceoro occa pepaee.

 

:  

 

:

 

 

ABA 1. Cyoc peo opo

1.1. OHTE OPAHOBAHHOO PHKA

1.2. OTTEHE EPT PEBO TOPOB

1.3. BO PEBO TOPOB

1.4. PH COB BOPOEH PEBO TOPOB B POCC B 1990-1991 .

ABA 2. 

2.1. OHTE P CTOP EE BOHKHOBEH

2.2. HK COBPEEHHO P

2.3.

2.4. PA OPAHA PEBO HPACTPKTP

2.5. OHTE, COCTAB PH PEPOBAH PEBO ETEHOCT

ABA 3.

3.1. OHTE COCTAB PEBOO TOBAPA

3.2. XAPAKTEPCTKA PEBOO TOBAPA TOBAPHX P

3.3.  EHHE A PEBO TOBAP

3.4. BATA KAK TOBAP

 ABA 4.

4.1. PHOK EHHX A

4.2. TOBAPH PHOK

4.3.

ABA 5.

5.1. PEBE HEKC

5.2. HAEHTAH AHA B PEBO TOPOBE

5.3.COOBAHE TEXHECKOO AHAA B PEBO EE

ABA 6.

6.1. PETE EH P

6.2. OPAH PABEH PE

ABA 7.

7.1. POKEPCKA ETEHOCT

7.2. EPCKA ETEHOCT

ABA 8.

8.1. PABA PEBX TOPOB

8.2. ACTHK PEBX TOPOB

8.3. OCK PEBOO TOBAPA K TOPA

8.4. TOPOBE OPEH X B

8.5. EXAH BEEH PEBOO TOPA

ABA 9.

9.1. OHTE CEKAX C PEB TOBAPO

9.2.B, OCOEHHOCT OPOK AKEH CEOK HA TOBAPHO, OHOBO BATHO PAX

ABA 10.

l0.1. CHOCT HK KPHA PACETOB

l0.2. EE OCAHE KPHA PACETOB

10.3. OCHOBHE B PCKOB

10.4. KPH PACET HA PHKE EHHX A

10.5. KPH PACET HA PHKE EPCHX KOHTPAKTOB

10.6.0CHOBHE HAPABEH PABT CCTE KPHA PACETOB

11.

11.1.

11.2. CTAHOBEHE EH HA AKOHE

11.3. ETO CTAHOBEH EHOO KPCA

11.4. KCH KAK COCO CTAHOBEH EH

ABA 12.

12.1. PO CPECTB ABTOAT B PEBO ETEHOCT

12.2. ABTOATPOBAHHE PAOE ECTA ACTHKOB PEBO ETEHOCT HA AE B

12.3. ABTOATPOBAHHE CCTE PABEH P

ABA 13.

13.1. OHTE EPCHO TOPOB EPCHOO KOHTPAKTA

13.2. CTOP PH BOHKHOBEH EPCHO TOPOB

13.3. E EPCHO TOPOB

13.4. EXAH PEBO EPCHO TOPOB

13.5. OPOK AKEH COHEH CEOK HA K-POA EPCHX KOHTPAKTOB

13.6. XEPOBAHE PEBA CEK

13.7. EHOOPAOBAHE

13.8. HAHCOBE PACET

13.9. OCOEHHOCT EPCHO TOPOB B POCC

14.

14.1.

14.2. ACHE OOHHE CTPATE

14.2.1.

14.2.2.

14.3. EHOOPAE AKTOP PEBX OOHOB

TOBAPHE P CA KAHA

(CHICAGO BOAD OF TADE)

KACKA KOEPECKA PA (CCAGO ECATILE EXCHAGE)

CPEHEAEPKAHCKA TOBAPHA PA (ID-AEICA COODITY EXCHAGE)

H-OPKCKA TOBAPHA PA (COODITY EXCHAGE IC, (COEX)

- (EW-YOK EKATILE EXCHAGE (YEX)

H-OPKCKA PA KOE, CAXAPA KAKAO (EW-YOK COFFEE, SGE AD COCOA EXCHAGE (CSCE)

H-OPKCKA PA 0 XOK TPCOB (EW-YOK COTTO, CITS AD PETOLE EXCHAGE IC, (YCE)

OHOHCKA EPCHA OOHHA PA (THE LODO ITEATIOAL FIACIAL FTES & OPTIOS EXCHAGE)

OHOHCKA PA ETAOB (THE LODO ETAL EXCHAGE)

 

  .

, -, ...
www.bibliotekar.ru/biznes-38/61.htm

 

  .

, ...
bibliotekar.ru/biznes-10/1.htm

  

  . .

III-V , VI ,  ...
www.bibliotekar.ru/finance-3/76.htm

 

 .

, . ...
bibliotekar.ru/finance-3/74.htm

 

  ...

, , . ...
bibliotekar.ru/biznes-25/7.htm

 

  . ...

. - . : ...
www.bibliotekar.ru/biznes-15/130.htm

 

  . , . ...

. - , . 1991 80 %...
www.bibliotekar.ru/finance-2/65.htm

 

  . ...

- , : ...
www.bibliotekar.ru/finance-3/77.htm

 

  . . ...

? . , "-". ...
bibliotekar.ru/biznes-63/9.htm